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Methyl ethyl ketone - Sciencemadness Wiki
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MEK is a natural component of many foods, applebeans, chicken, honey and a variety of cheeses. Synonyms for MEK are 2-butanone, ethyl methyl ketone, and methyl acetone.
MEK is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indirect food additive for adhesives and polymers.
MAP2K1 is also known as MEK1 (see Mitogen-activated protein kinase).
MEK1 is a meiotic chromosome-axis-associated kinase that is thought to slow down, but not entirely block, sister chromatid recombination. Loss of MEK1 allows inter-sister DSB repair and also inter-sister Holliday junction intermediates to increase.
Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound the formula CH 3 C(O)CH CH 3.
Methyl ethyl ketone - Sciencemadness Wiki
This colorless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of butterscotch and acetone. It is industrially on a large scale, also occurs in trace amounts in nature.
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Mek, variant of Makk, a royal title used in the Sudan This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Mek.
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Similarly to acetone, methyl ethyl ketone is to produce its own organic peroxide, MEKP. Physical.
Methyl ethyl ketone is a clear, colorless fluid that is less viscous than and has a somewhat sharp, sweet odor characteristic of most ketones, with some describing as similar to butterscotch.
Methyl ethyl ketone is a colorless volatile liquid that is soluble in water.
(2) The odor threshold for methyl ethyl ketone is parts per million (ppm), with an acetone-like odor reported.
(3) The chemical formula for methyl ethyl ketone is C4H8O and the molecular weight is 72.10 g/mol. (7,9)
Skip navigation Sign in. Search Introduction Cellular growth and differentation are controlled by multiple extracellular signals, many of which activated.
This pathway is conserved trough evolution and transfer information from the environment growth factors, mitogens and antigen receptors, by GPCR activation, by stress and infiammatory stimulus, by UV, FASL activation to the nucleus through a three levels pathway that involves the sequential phosphorylation of three kinases: MAPK kinase MAPKKKMAPK kinase MAPKK and MAPK: Yeast Vertebrates MAPKKK Ras directly interacts with and activates Raf.
Raf phosphorylates and activates MEK, which in turn phosphorylates and activates ERKs.
The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen activated protein kinase MAPK pathway is activated by growth factors, mitogens and antigen receptors, by GPCR activation, by stress and infiammatory stimulus, by UV, FASL activation directly and by the activation of G-coupled receptor читать далее switches on Calmoduline signal Ca++-citoplasmatic-dependent induced by PLC.
For these reasons the activation of MAPK pathway is an indicator of a "good state" of the cell because it is involved in pro-proliferation and pro-survival response.
Raf kinase signaling RAS GTPases are activated by the majority of growth factor receptors and bind and recruit Raf to the cell membrane upon activation.
The central components of are then sequentially phosphorylated and activated by each other.
More than 70 nuclear and non-nuclear effector molecules of the mitogenic cascade have been identified so far.
In addition, Raf kinase signaling in a cascade-independent fashion has been described.
This includes the activation of the NF-kB transcription factor, the prevention of apoptosis by antagonizing proapoptotic factors such as MST2, the mammalian sterile 20-like kinase, ASK1, the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase1, and BAD, BCL-2-antagonist of cell death, and finally the positive regulation of cell migration via the Rho effector kinase Rok-a.
The regulation of Raf kinase activity is quite complex, far from being fully understood.
The key feature involves assembly of the cascade at the membrane from preexisting modules Ras module, Raf module, KSR module.
This process is paralleled an intricate pattern of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events leading to changes of signaling molecules.
The kinetics of this process depends on the presence of individual Raf isoenzymes and on the https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/signalizatsiya-black-bug-art-bt71w.html of various positive and negative feedback loops.
Within this signaling zoo along посетить страницу mitogenic cascade, there is still more room for novel players.
They are definitely more than just additional signaling proteins and contribute significantly посетить страницу источник our understanding how Raf kinase signaling really works.
Homo- and heterodimerization of Raf kinases clearly exist, and that heterodimerization can be Ras induced.
In addition, it was shown that Raf heterodimerization is regulated by 14-3-3 proteins, mitogens and the Mixed-lineage kinase 3 and is also stabilized by MEK inhibition.
Several authors described that heterodimerization is involved in the activation of C-RAF by B-RAF, but that wild-type and mutant B-RAF use different activation mechanisms.
Role of Raf in Cancer Since its first isolation as a potential cellular oncogene, many studies involving Raf were focused on ссылка role in />These included examining both its direct role in cancer and its involvement in mediating transformation by its upstream effectors, especially Ras and growth factor receptors.
Raf Regulation Most of understanding of Raf regulation comes from studies using C-Raf, though several fundamental studies using B-Raf have also provided significant input to view of this complex process.
There are several regions conserved among all Raf proteins designated CR1, CR2, and CR3.
The transforming v-Raf form contains a deletion of CR1 and CR2, resulting in a constitutively active form of Raf.
Thus, the N-terminal half of Raf is considered to be a negative regulatory читать больше which helps in maintaining Raf in an inactive state in the absence of stimulation.
The common view is that the catalytic domain of Raf is folded and bound to the N-terminal regulatory domain.
This interaction Экран DNP Core Black Velvet (23-23) stabilized by the binding of a 14-3-3 dimer at two C-Raf phosphorylated sites, S259 and S621.
As to the Raf activation process following the interaction with active Ras, the common thinking is that C-Raf undergoes a series of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events that result in a stably active form.
This aspect of Raf regulation turned Переводная временная татуировка Акита-ину to be a highly challenging task to tackle and https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/alyuminievaya-reshetka-arktos-amr-k-400h100m.html only partially resolved.
нажмите чтобы перейти and Future Perspectives Many of the studies on Raf and the entire MAPK pathway have focused on experimental models using acute growth factor activation high concentrations for a short time period.
These models do not reflect physiological conditions in the organism, in which acute growth factor источник статьи are highly rare events.
Furthermore, https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/shlem-rdx-s-bamperom-hgr-t2-black-rdx.html would expect that посмотреть еще functions would be largely cell type and organ specific.
In this regard, even our understanding of the role of Raf and the MAPK pathway in a relatively defined biological setting of cell cycle progression is considerably limited and even less known are isoform specific Raf functions during this process.
As regards to the role of Raf in cancer, though B-Raf is distinguished at present as the principal Raf isoform associated with human cancer due to the prevalence of its mutations, these cancer cases overall represent only a small fraction of human cancers in which Raf may play a key role.
The large majority of cancers that involve increased MAPK activation do not carry Raf e.
Thus, in these settings it is important to define the relative contribution of the three Raf isoforms the tumorigenic process.
Thus far, many of the experimental approaches involved the use of dominant negative Raf forms that function largely by inhibiting Ras or MEK and not informative in determining the role of Raf in these settings or distinguishing between isoform specific functions.
Similarly, the existing small molecule Raf inhibitors do not differentiate between the three Raf isoforms.
The main tool to address this question is the use of RNAi reagents specific for Raf isoform.
However, even this approach may not provide conclusive answers when considering the recent reports that C-Raf and B-Raf could act in concert through heterodimerization, though the physiological significance of these observations awaits further confirmation.
Comments 2009-04-14T10:05:30 - Ras—ERK signaling in behavioral The role of Ras—ERK signaling in behavioral plasticity is well established.
Inhibition studies using the blood—brain barrier permeable drug SL327 have conclusively demonstrated that this neuronal cell signaling cascade is a crucial component of the synaptic machinery implicated in the formation of various forms of long-term memory, from spatial learning to fear and operant conditioning.
The work recently on these brain disorders has pointed to previously underappreciated roles of Ras—ERK in specific subsets of neurons, like GABAergic interneurons of the hippocampus or the cortex, as well as in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum.
Here we will highlight the open questions related to Ras—ERK signaling in these behavioral manifestations and propose crucial experiments for the future.
Abstract CONTEXT: BRAF mutations are common in papillary thyroid carcinomas PTCs.
By affecting the expression of genes critically related to the development and differentiation of thyroid cancer, they may influence the prognosis of these tumors.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the expression of thyroid-specific genes associated with BRAF mutation in PTCs.
Eight samples of normal thyroid tissue were analyzed as controls.
NIS protein expression and localization was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: mRNA levels for all thyroid-specific genes were reduced in all PTCs vs.
NIS, AIT-B, Tg, and TPO expression was significantly lower in BRAF-mut tumors than in the BRAF-wt group.
Glut-1 transcript levels were increased in all PTCs, and additional increases were noted in BRAF-mut tumors.
In both tumor subsets, the NIS protein that was expressed was abnormally retained in the cytoplasm.
CONCLUSION: BRAF V600E mutation in PTCs is associated with reduced expression of key genes involved in iodine metabolism.