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Black Box Ель Альвест

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ksh is a command interpreter that is intended for both interactive and shell script use. Its language is a superset of the shell language.

Shell Startup The following options can be specified only on the command line:
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The major base of service package consists of transportation between Spain, Italy and Scandinavia. Its command language is a superset of the 1 shell language.
Shell Startup The following options can be specified only on the command line: -c command-string the shell executes the command s contained in command-string -i interactive mode - see below -l login shell - see below interactive mode - see below -s the shell reads commands from https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/byustgalter-si-e-lei.html input; all non-option arguments are positional parameters -r restricted mode - see below In addition to the above, the options described in the set built-in command can also be used on the command line.
If neither the -c nor the -s options are specified, the first non-option argument specifies the name of a file the shell reads commands from; if there are no non-option arguments, the shell reads commands from standard input.
The name of the shell i.
A shell is interactive if the -i option is used or if both standard input and standard error are attached to a tty.
An interactive shell has job control enabled if availableignores the INT, QUIT and TERM signals, and prints prompts before reading input see PS1 and PS2 parameters.
For non-interactive shells, the trackall option is on by default see set command below.
Clearing the privileged option causes the shell to set its effective user-id group-id to its real user-id group-id.
If the basename of the name the shell is called with i.
If the ENV parameter is set when the shell starts or, in the case of login shells, after any profiles are processedits value is subjected to parameter, command, arithmetic and tilde substitution and the resulting file if any is read and executed.
The exit status of the shell is жмите if the command file specified on the command line could not be opened, or non-zero if a fatal syntax error occurred during the execution of a script.
In the absence of fatal errors, the exit status is that of the last command executed, or zero, if no command is executed.
Command Syntax The shell begins parsing its input by breaking it into words.
Aside from delimiting words, spaces and tabs are ignored, while Страйкбольный пистолет CZ SP-01 SHADOW 6мм, металлический, с блоубэком (подвижный затвор), грингаз usually delimit commands.
As words and tokens are parsed, the shell builds commands, of which there are two basic types: simple-commands, typically programs that are executed, and compound-commands, such as for and if statements, grouping constructs and function definitions.
The command words, if any, define the command that is to be executed and its arguments.
The command may be a shell built-in command, a function or an external command, i.
Note that all command constructs have an exit status: for external commands, this is related to the status returned by 2 if the command could not be больше на странице, the exit status is 127, if it could not be executed, the exit status is 126 ; the exit status of other command constructs built-in commands, functions, compound-commands, pipelines, lists, etc.
The exit status of a command consisting only of parameter assignments is that of the last command substitution performed during the parameter assignment or zero if Домкрат гидравлический бутылочный T50, 2т, 180-347мм, зубр Профессионал 43060-2 were no command substitutions.
Commands can be chained together using the token to form pipelines, in which the standard output of each command but the last is piped see 2 to the standard input of the following command.
The exit status of a pipeline is that of its last command.
A pipeline may be prefixed by the!
When an asynchronous command is started when job control is disabled i.
The exit status of a list is that of the last command executed, with the exception of asynchronous lists, for which the exit status is 0.
Compound commands are created using the following reserved words - these words are only recognized if they are unquoted and if they are used as the first word of a command i.
To be portable, the exec statement should be used instead to redirect file descriptors before the control structure.
In the following compound command descriptions, command lists denoted as list that are followed by reserved words must end with a semi-colon, a newline or a syntactically correct reserved word.
For example, { echo foo; echo bar; } { echo foo; echo bar} { { echo foo; echo bar; } } are all valid, but { echo foo; echo bar } is not.
There is no implicit way to pass environment changes from a subshell back to its parent.
{ list } Compound construct; list is executed, but not in a subshell.
Note that { and } are reserved words, not meta-characters.
Patterns used in case statements are the same as those used for file name patterns except that the restrictions regarding.
Note that any unquoted space before and after a pattern is stripped; any space with a pattern must be quoted.
Both the word and the patterns are subject to parameter, command, and arithmetic substitution as well as tilde substitution.
For historical reasons, open and close braces may be used instead of in and esac e.
The exit status of a case statement is that of the executed list; if no list is executed, the exit status is zero.
For each word in the specified word list, the parameter name is set to the word and list is executed.
For historical reasons, open and close braces may be used instead of do and done e.
The exit status of a for statement is the last exit status of list; if list is never executed, the exit status is zero.
If all the lists following the if and elifs fail i.
The exit status of an if statement is that of non-conditional list that is executed; if no non-conditional list is executed, the exit status is zero.
The select statement provides an automatic method of presenting the user with a menu and selecting from it.
An enumerated list of the specified words is printed on standard error, followed by a prompt PS3, normally '?
If a blank line i.
When list completes, the enumerated list is printed if REPLY is null, the prompt is printed and so on.
This process is continues until an end-of-file is read, an interrupt is received or a break statement is executed inside the loop.
For historical reasons, open and close braces may be used instead of do and done e.
The exit status of a select statement is zero if a break is used to exit the loop, non-zero otherwise.
Its body is executed as often as the exit status of the first list is zero.
The exit status of a while statement is the last exit status of the list in the body of the https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/s-xanthos-kretzschmer-j-douvitsas-gamst-das-neue-deutschmobil-2-a2-lehrbuch-audio-cd.html if the body is not executed, the exit status is zero.
Note that redirections specified after a function definition are performed whenever the function is executed, not when the function definition is executed.
See Посмотреть больше Expressions and the let command below.
Quoting Quoting is used to prevent the shell from treating characters or words specially.
Second, a single quote ' quotes everything up to the next single quote this may span lines.
Note: see POSIX Mode below for a special rule regarding sequences of the form ".
Aliases There are two types of aliases: normal command aliases and tracked aliases.
Command aliases are normally used as a short hand for a long or often used command.
The shell expands command aliases i.
An expanded alias is re-processed to check for more aliases.
If a command alias ends in a space or tab, the following word is also checked for alias expansion.
по этому сообщению alias expansion process stops when a word that is not an alias is found, when a quoted word is found or when an alias word that is currently being expanded is found.
The first time the shell does a path search for a command that is marked as a tracked alias, it saves the full path of the command.
The next time the command is executed, the shell checks the saved path to see that it is still valid, and if so, avoids repeating the path search.
Tracked aliases can be listed and created using alias -t.
Note that changing the PATH parameter clears the saved paths for all tracked aliases.
If the trackall option is set i.
This option is set automatically for non-interactive shells.
For interactive shells, only the following commands are automatically tracked: cat, cc, chmod, cp, date, ed, emacs, grep, ls, mail, make, mv, pr, rm, sed, sh, vi and who.
Substitution The first step the shell takes in executing a simple-command is to perform substitutions on the words of the command.
There are three kinds of substitution: parameter, command and arithmetic.
If a substitution appears outside of double quotes, the results of the substitution are generally subject to word or field splitting according to the current value of the IFS parameter.
The IFS parameter specifies a list of characters which are used to break a string up into several words; any characters from the set space, tab and newline that appear in the IFS characters are called IFS white space.
Sequences of one or more IFS white space characters, in combination with zero or one non-IFS white space characters delimit a field.
As a special case, leading and trailing IFS white space is stripped i.
Example: if IFS is set to ':', the sequence of characters 'A:B::D' contains four fields: 'A', 'B', '' and 'D'.
Note that if the IFS parameter is set to the null string, no field splitting is done; if the parameter is unset, the default value of space, tab and newline is used.
The results of substitution are, unless otherwise specified, also subject to brace expansion and file name expansion see the relevant sections below.
A command substitution is replaced by the output generated by the specified command, which is run in a subshell.
This will hopefully be fixed soon.
Arithmetic substitutions are ссылка на продолжение by the value of the specified expression.
See Arithmetic Expressions for a description of an expression.
Parameters Parameters are shell variables; they can be assigned values and their values can be accessed using a parameter substitution.
Array indicies are currently limited to the range 0 through 1023, inclusive.
If substitution is performed on a parameter or an array parameter element that is not set, a null string is substituted unless the nounset option set -o or set -u is set, in which case an error occurs.
Parameters can be assigned values in a number of ways.
First, the shell implicitly sets some parameters likePWD, etc.
Second, parameters are imported взято отсюда the shell's environment at startup.
The fourth way of setting a parameter is with the export, readonly продолжить чтение Leggings NO P3_CLG_NOK_W_64670_A0 BLACK commands; see their descriptions in the Command Execution section.
Fifth, for and select loops set parameters as well as the getopts, read and set -A commands.
The order in which parameters appear in the environment of a command is unspecified.
When the shell starts up, it extracts parameters and their values from its environment and automatically sets the export attribute for those parameters.
If word is omitted the string 'parameter null or not set' is used instead.
In the above modifiers, the : can Swat Ahr-4580 omitted, in which case the conditions only depend on name being set as opposed to set and not null.
If word is needed, parameter, command, arithmetic and tilde substitution are performed on it; if word is not needed, it is not evaluated.
A single results in the shortest match, two 's results in the longest match.
} substitution, but it deletes from the end of the value.
The following special parameters are implicitly set by the shell and cannot be set directly using assignments:!
Process id of the last background process started.
If no background processes have been started, the parameter is not set.
The number of positional parameters i.
The exit status of the last non-asynchronous command executed.
If used outside of double quotes, parameters are separate words which are subjected to word splitting ; if used within double quotes, parameters are separated by the first character of the IFS parameter or the empty string if IFS is null.
In interactive use, this parameter is also set in the parent shell to the last word of the previous command.
When MAILPATH messages are evaluated, this parameter contains the name of the file that changed see MAILPATH parameter below.
CDPATH Search path for the cd built-in command.
Note that if CDPATH is set and does подробнее на этой странице contain.
COLUMNS Set to the number of columns on the terminal or window.
Currently set to the cols value as reported by 1 if that value is non-zero.
This parameter is used by the interactive line editing modes, and by select, set -o and kill -l commands to format information in columns.
EDITOR If the VISUAL parameter is not set, this parameter controls the command line editing mode for interactive shells.
See VISUAL parameter below for how this works.
ENV If this parameter is found to be set after any profile files are executed, the expanded value is used as a shell start-up file.
It typically contains function and alias definitions.
ERRNO Integer value of the shell's errno variable - indicates the reason the last system call failed.
EXECSHELL If set, this parameter is assumed to contain the shell that is to be used to execute commands that 2 fails to execute and which do not start with a '!
FCEDIT The editor used by the fc command see below.
FPATH Like PATH, but used when an undefined function is executed to locate the file defining the function.
It is also searched when a command can't be found using PATH.
See Functions below for more information.
HISTFILE The name of the file used to store history.
When assigned to, history is loaded from the specified file.
Also, several invocations of the shell running on the same machine will share history if their HISTFILE parameters all point at the same file.
NOTE: if HISTFILE isn't set, no history file is used.
HISTSIZE The number of commands normally stored for history, default 128.
HOME The default directory for the cd command and the value substituted for an unqualified ~ see Tilde Expansion below.
IFS Internal field separator, used during substitution and by the read command, to split values into distinct arguments; normally set to space, tab and newline.
See Substitution above for details.
Note: this parameter is not imported from the environment when the shell is started.
See also the version commands in Emacs Editing Mode and Vi Editing Mode sections, below.
LINENO The line number of the function or shell script that is currently being executed.
LINES Set to the number of lines on the terminal or window.
MAIL If set, the user will be informed of the arrival of mail in the named file.
This parameter is ignored if the MAILPATH parameter is set.
MAILCHECK How often, in seconds, the shell will check for mail in the file s specified by MAIL or MAILPATH.
If 0, the shell checks before each prompt.
The default is 600 10 minutes.
MAILPATH A list of files to be checked for mail.
The list is colon separated, and each file may be followed by a?
OLDPWD The previous working directory.
Unset if cd has not successfully changed directories since the shell started, or if the shell doesn't know where it is.
OPTARG When using getopts, it contains the argument for a parsed option, if it requires one.
OPTIND The index of the last argument processed when using getopts.
Assigning 1 to this parameter causes getopts to process arguments from the beginning the next time it is invoked.
PATH A colon separated list of directories that are searched when looking for commands and.
An empty string resulting from a leading or trailing colon, or two adjacent colons is treated as a '.
See POSIX Mode below.
PPID The process ID of the shell's parent readonly.
PS1 PS1 is the primary prompt for interactive shells.
Parameter, command and arithmetic substitutions are performed, and!
Note that since the command line editors confirm.

Твердотельный накопитель PQI S528 32GB simply to figure out how long the prompt is so they know how far it is to edge of the screenescape codes in the prompt tend to mess things up.
You can tell the shell not to count certain sequences such as escape codes by prefixing your prompt with a non-printing character such as control-A followed by a carriage return and then delimiting the escape codes with this non-printing character.
If you don't have any non-printing characters, you're out of luck.
BTW, don't blame me for this hack; it's in the original ksh.
PS3 Prompt used by select statement when reading a menu selection.
PS4 Used to prefix commands that are printed during execution tracing see set -x command below.
Parameter, command and arithmetic substitutions are performed before it is printed.
Default is ' + '.
PWD The current working directory.
Maybe unset or null if shell doesn't know where it is.
RANDOM A simple random number generator.
Every time RANDOM is referenced, it is assigned the next number in a random number series.
The point in the series can be set by assigning a number to RANDOM see 3.
REPLY Default parameter for the read command if no names are given.
Also used in select loops to store the value that is read from standard input.
SECONDS The number of seconds since the shell started or, if the parameter has been assigned an по этой ссылке value, the number of seconds since the assignment plus the value that was assigned.
TMOUT If set to a positive integer in an interactive shell, it specifies the maximum number of seconds the shell will wait for input after printing the primary prompt PS1.
If the time is exceeded, the shell exits.
TMPDIR The directory shell temporary files are created in.
VISUAL If set, this parameter controls the command line editing mode for interactive shells.
If the last component of the path specified in this parameter contains the string vi, emacs or gmacs, the vi, ссылка на подробности or gmacs Gosling emacs editing mode is enabled, respectively.
Tilde Expansion Tilde expansion, which is done in parallel with parameter substitution, is done on words starting with an unquoted ~.
If the login name is+ or - the value of the HOME, PWD, or OLDPWD parameter is substituted, respectively.
Otherwise, the password file is searched for the login name, and the tilde expression is substituted with the user's home directory.
If the login name is not found in the password file or if any quoting or parameter substitution occurs in the login name, no substitution is performed.
In parameter assignments нажмите чтобы увидеть больше preceding a simple-command or привожу ссылку occurring in the arguments of alias, export, readonly, and typesettilde expansion is done after any unquoted colon :and login names are also delimited by colons.
The home directory of previously expanded login names are cached and re-used.
The alias -d command may be used to list, change and add to this cache e.
Brace Expansion alternation Brace expressions, which take the form prefix { str1 .
As noted in the example, brace expressions can be nested and the resulting words are not sorted.
Brace expressions must contain an unquoted commafor expansion to occur i.
Brace expansion is carried out after parameter substitution and before file name generation.
File Name Patterns A file name pattern is a word containing one or more unquoted?
Once brace expansion has been performed, the shell replaces file name patterns with the sorted names of all the files that match the pattern if no files match, the word is left unchanged.
The pattern elements have the following meaning:?
Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a - e.
In order to represent itself, a - must either be quoted or the first or last character in the character list.
Example: the pattern + foo bar matches the strings 'foo', 'bar', 'foobarfoo', etc.
Example: the pattern foo bar only matches the strings 'foo' and 'bar'.
Note that pdksh currently never matches.
Note that none of the above pattern elements match either a period.
The POSIX character classes i.
If file does not exist, it is created; if it does exist, is a regular file and the noclobber option is set, an error occurs, otherwise the file is truncated.
Note that this means the command cmd foo will open foo for reading and then truncate it when it opens it for writing, before cmd gets a chance to actually read foo.
Also, the file is opened in append mode, so writes always go to the end of the file see 2.
When the command is executed, standard input is redirected from the temporary file.
If multiple here documents are used on the same command line, they are saved in order.
In any of the above redirections, the file descriptor that is redirected i.
Parameter, читать статью and arithmetic substitutions, tilde substitutions and if the shell is interactive file name generation are all performed on the file, marker and fd arguments of redirections.
Note however, that the results of any file name generation are only used if a single file is matched; if multiple files match, the word with the unexpanded file name generation characters is used.
Note that in restricted shells, redirections which can create files cannot be used.
For simple-commands, redirections may appear anywhere in the command, for compound-commands if statements, etc.
Expression may contain alpha-numeric parameter identifiers, array references, and integer constants and may be combined with the following C operators listed and grouped in increasing order of precedence.
Unary operators: + -!
The operators are evaluated as follows: unary + result is the argument included for completeness.
~ arithmetic bit-wise not.
When used as a prefix operator, the result is the incremented value of the parameter, when used as a postfix operator, the result is the original value of the parameter.
The https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/predtrenirovochniy-kompleks-biotech-black-blood-caf-330g-kola.html is value of the expression on the right hand side.
The right argument is evaluated only if the left argument is zero.
The right argument is evaluated only if the left argument is non-zero.
The sign of the result is unspecified if either argument is negative.
This means that end of file will not be detected until all co-processes sharing the co-process output have exited when they all exit, the shell closes its copy of the pipe.
This can be avoided by redirecting the output to a numbered file descriptor as this also causes the shell to close its copy.
Note that this behaviour is slightly different from the original Korn shell which closes its copy of the write portion of the co-processs output when the most recently started co-process instead of when all sharing co-processes exits.
When the shell is determining the location of a command, functions are searched after special built-in commands, and before regular and non-regular built-ins, and before the PATH is searched.
An existing function may be deleted using unset -f function-name.
A list of functions can be obtained using typeset +f and the function definitions can be listed using typeset -f.
If after executing the file, the named function is found to be defined, the function is executed, otherwise, the normal search is continued i.
Note that if a command is not found using PATH, an attempt is made to autoload a function using FPATH this is an undocumented feature of the original Korn shell.
Functions can have two attributes, trace and export, which can be set with typeset -ft and typeset -fx, respectively.
When a traced function is executed, the shell's xtrace option is turned on for the functions duration, otherwise the xtrace option is turned off.
The export attribute of functions is currently страница used.
In the original Korn shell, exported functions are visible to shell scripts that are executed.
Since functions are executed in the current shell environment, parameter assignments made inside functions are visible after the function completes.
If this is not the desired effect, the typeset command can be used inside a function to create a local parameter.
Note that special parameters e.
The exit status of a function is that of the last command executed in the function.
A function can be made to finish immediately using the return command; this may also be used to explicitly specify the детальнее на этой странице status.
This will mean that traps set inside a function will not affect the shell's traps and signals that are not ignored in the shell but may be trapped will have their default effect in a function.
POSIX Mode The shell is intended to be POSIX compliant, however, in some cases, POSIX behaviour is contrary either to the original Korn shell behaviour or to user convenience.
How the shell продолжить in these cases is determined by the state of the posix option set -o posix - if it is on, the POSIX behaviour is followed, otherwise it is not.
The shell can also be compiled so that it is in POSIX mode by default, however this is usually not desirable.
In future, a new option -v perhaps will be added to distinguish the two behaviours.
In non-posix mode, it will be the exit status of the last command substitution that was done in the processing of the arguments to eval or 0 if there were no command substitutions.
This construct is used in most shell scripts that use the old 1 command.
Command Execution After of command line arguments, redirections and parameter assignments, the type of command is determined: a special built-in, a function, a regular built-in or the name of a file to execute found using the PATH parameter.
The checks are made in the above order.
Special built-in commands differ from other commands in that the PATH parameter is not used to find them, an error during their execution can cause a non-interactive shell to exit and parameter assignments that are specified before the command are kept after the command completes.
Just to confuse things, if the posix option is turned off see set command below some special commands are very special in that no field splitting, file globing, brace expansion nor tilde expansion is preformed on arguments that look like assignments.
Regular built-in commands are different only in that the PATH parameter is not used to find them.
The original ksh and POSIX differ somewhat in which commands are considered special or regular: POSIX special commands Additional ksh special commands Very special commands non-posix mode POSIX regular commands Additional ksh regular commands In the future, the additional ksh special and regular commands may be treated differently from the POSIX special and regular commands.
Once the type of the command has been determined, any command line parameter assignments are performed and exported for the duration of the command.
The following describes the special and regular built-in commands:.
The file is searched for in the directories of PATH.
If arguments are given, the positional parameters may be used to access them while file is being executed.
If no arguments are given, the positional parameters are those of the environment the command is used in.
Exit status is set to zero.
For any name without a value, the existing alias is listed.
Any name with a value defines an alias see Aliases above.
In addition, if the -p option is used, each alias is prefixed with the string " alias ".
The -x option sets +x clears the export attribute of an alias, or, if no names are given, lists the aliases with the export attribute exporting an alias has no affect.
The -r option indicates that all tracked aliases are to be reset.
The -d causes directory aliases, which are used in tilde expansion, to be listed or set see Tilde Expansion above.
If no jobs are specified, %+ is assumed.
This command is only available on systems which support job control.
See Job Control below for more information.
See Emacs Editing Mode below for a complete description.
If the parameter CDPATH is set, it lists directories to search in for dir.
An empty entry in the CDPATH entry means the current directory.
If a non-empty directory from CDPATH is used, the resulting full path is printed to standard output.
If dir is - the previous working directory is used see OLDPWD нажмите сюда />If -L option logical path is used or if the physical option see set command below isn't set, references to.
If -P option physical path is used or if the physical option is set.
The PWD and OLDPWD parameters are updated to reflect the current and old wordingrespectively.
If the -v option is given, instead of executing cmd, information about what would be executed is given and the same is done for arg1.
If no command is be found, i.
The -V option is like the -v option, except it is more verbose.
See print command below for a list of other backslash sequences that are recognized.
The options are provided for compatibility with BSD shell scripts: -n suppresses the trailing newline, -e enables backslash interpretation a no-op, since this is normally doneand -E which suppresses backslash interpretation.
The arguments are concatenated with spaces between them to form a single string which the shell then parses and executes in the current environment.
If no arguments are given, any IO redirection is permanent and the shell is not replaced.
Any file descriptors greater than 2 which are opened or 2 -ed in this way are not made available to other executed commands i.
Note that the Bourne shell differs here: it does pass these file descriptors on.
If status is not specified, the exit status is the current value of the?
Sets the export attribute of the named parameters.
Exported parameters are passed in the environment to executed commands.
If values are specified, the named parameters also assigned.
If no parameters are specified, the names of all parameters with the export attribute are printed one per line, unless the -p option is used, in which case export commands defining all exported parameters, including their values, are printed.
Commands can be selected by history number, or a string specifying the most recent command starting with that string.
The -l option lists the command on stdout, and -n inhibits the default command numbers.
The -r option reverses the order of the list.
If -g is specified, all occurrences of old are replaced with new.
If no jobs are specified, %+ is assumed.
This command is only available on systems which support job control.
See Job Control below for more information.
If a letter is followed by a colon, the option is expected to have an argument.
Options that do not take arguments may be grouped in a single argument.
If an option takes an argument and the option character is not the last character of the argument it is found in, the remainder of the argument is taken to be the option's argument, otherwise, the next argument is the option's argument.
Each time getopts is invoked, it places the next option in the shell parameter name and the index of the next argument to be processed in the shell parameter OPTIND.
If the option was introduced with a +, the option placed in name is prefixed with a +.
When an option requires an argument, getopts places it in the shell parameter OPTARG.
When an illegal option or a missing option argument is a question mark or a colon is placed in name indicating an illegal option or missing argument, respectively and OPTARG is set to the option character that caused the problem.
An error message is also https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/botinki-marsell-mmg112.html to standard error if optstring does not begin with a colon.
When the end of the options is encountered, getopts exits with a non-zero exit status.
Options end at the first non-option argument argument that does not start with a - or when a -- argument is encountered.
Option parsing can be reset by setting OPTIND to 1 this is done automatically whenever the shell or a shell procedure is invoked.
Warning: Changing the value of the shell parameter OPTIND to a value other than 1, or parsing different sets of arguments without resetting OPTIND may lead to unexpected results.
The -r option causes all hashed commands to be removed from the hash table.
Each name is searched as if it where a command name and added to the hash table if it is an executable command.
The -n option causes information to be displayed only for jobs that have changed state since the last notification.
If the -l option is used, the process-id of each process in a job is also listed.
The -p option causes only the process group of each job to https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/teplovaya-zavesa-frico-ad315e14.html printed.
See Job Control below for the format of job and the displayed job.
Send the specified signal to the specified jobs, process ids, or process groups.
If no signal is specified, the Потолочная люстра Rivoli Mod 3034-303 TERM is sent.
If a job is specified, the signal is sent to the job's process group.
See Job Control below for the format of job.
If no arguments are specified, a list of all the signals, their numbers and a short description of them are printed.
If all expressions are successfully evaluated, the exit status is 0 1 if the last expression evaluated to non-zero zero.
If an error occurs during parsing or evaluation of an expression, the exit status is greater than 1.
Since expressions may need to be quoted, expr is syntactic sugar for let " expr ".
The -n option suppresses the newline.
By default, certain C escapes are translated.
The -s option to the history file instead of standard output, the -u option prints to file descriptor n n defaults to 1 if omittedand the -p option prints to the co-process see Co-Processes above.
As above, the -n option suppresses the trailing newline.
If -L option is used or if the physical option see set command below isn't set, the logical path is printed i.
If -P option physical path is used or if the physical option is set, the path determined from the filesystem by following.
If there are more parameters than fields, the extra parameters are set to null, or alternatively, if there are more fields than parameters, the last parameter is assigned the remaining fields inclusive of any separating spaces.
If no parameters are specified, the REPLY parameter is used.
If the input line ends in a backslash and the читать далее option was not used, the backslash and newline are stripped and more input is read.
If no input is https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/elektrokipyatilnik-hurakan-hkn-hvd10.html, read exits with a non-zero status.
The first parameter may have a question mark and a string appended to it, in YAMAHA FGX800C BLACK case the string is used as a prompt printed to standard error before any input is read if the input is something Поло HENRY COTTONS HCU POLO1 BLACK consider tty e.
The -u n and -p options cause input to be read from file descriptor n or the current co-process see Co-Processes above for comments on thisrespectively.
If the -s option is used, input is saved to the history file.
Sets the readonly attribute of the named parameters.
If values are given, parameters are set to them before setting the attribute.
Once a parameter is made readonly, it cannot be unset and its value cannot be changed.
If no parameters are specified, the names of all parameters with the readonly attribute are printed one per line, unless the -p option is used, in which case readonly commands defining all readonly parameters, including their values, are printed.
If no status is given, the exit status of the last executed command is used.
If used outside of a function or.
Options can be changed using the ±o option syntax, where option is the long name of an option, or using the ± letter syntax, where letter is the option's single letter name not all options have a single letter name.
The following table lists both option letters if they exist and long names along with a description of what the option does.
These options can also be used upon invocation of the shell.
The current set of options with single letter names can be found in the parameter .
Remaining arguments, if any, are positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to the positional parameters i.
If options are ended with -- and there are no remaining arguments, all positional parameters are cleared.
If no options or arguments are given, then the values of all names are printed.
For unknown historical reasons, a lone - option is treated specially: it clears both the -x and -v options.
It is normally used as the condition command of if and while statements.
If no pipeline is given, then the user and system time used by the shell itself, and all the commands it has run since it was started, are reported.
The times reported are the real time time from start to finishthe user cpu time time spent running in user mode and the system cpu time time spent running in kernel mode.
Times are reported to standard error; the format of the output is: 0.
Handler is either a null string, indicating the signals are to be ignored, a minus -indicating that the default action is to be taken for the signals see signal 2 or 3or a string containing shell commands to be evaluated and executed at the first opportunity i.
Signal is the name of a signal e.
There are two special signals: EXIT also known as 0which is executed when the shell is about to exit, and ERR which is executed after an error occurs an error is something that would cause the shell to exit if the -e or errexit option were set - see set command above.
EXIT handlers are executed in the environment of the last executed command.
Note that for non-interactive shells, the trap handler cannot be changed for signals that were ignored when the shell started.
With no arguments, trap lists, as a series of trap commands, the current state of the traps that have been set since the shell started.
Note that the output of trap can not be usefully piped to another process an artifact of the fact that traps are cleared when subprocesses are created.
The original Korn shell's DEBUG trap and the handling of ERR and EXIT traps in functions are not yet implemented.
With no name arguments, parameter attributes are displayed: if no options arg used, the current attributes of all parameters are printed as typeset commands; if an option is given or - with no option letter all parameters and their values with the specified attributes are printed; if options are introduced with +, parameter values are not printed.
If name arguments are given, the attributes of the named parameters are set - or cleared +.
Values for parameters may optionally be specified.
If typeset is used inside a function, any newly created parameters are local to the function.
When -f is used, typeset operates on the attributes of functions.
As with parameters, if no names are given, functions are listed with their values i.
If no options are used, the file size limit -f is assumed.
The limits affect the shell and any processes created by the shell after a limit is imposed.
Note that some systems may not allow limits to be increased once they are set.
Also note that the types of limits available are system dependent - some systems have only the -f limit.
As far as ulimit is concerned, a block is 512 bytes.
If the -S option is used, the mask displayed or set is symbolic, otherwise it is an octal number.
The who part specifies which part of the umask is to be modified.
If the -a option is used, all aliases are removed.
If the -t or -d options are used, the indicated operations are carried out on tracked or directory aliases, respectively.
Unset the named parameters -v, the default or functions -f.
The exit status is non-zero if any of the parameters were already unset, zero otherwise.
The exit status of wait is that of the last specified job: if the last job is killed by a signal, приведу ссылку exit status is 128 + the number of the signal see kill -l exit-status above ; if the last specified job can't be found because it never existed, or had already finishedthe exit status of wait is 127.
See Job Control below for the format of job.
Wait will return if a signal for which a trap has been set is received, or if a HUP, INT or QUIT signal is received.
If no jobs are specified, wait waits for all currently running jobs if any to finish and exits with a zero status.
If job monitoring is enabled, the completion status of jobs is printed this is not the case when jobs are explicitly specified.
Without the -v option, whence is similar to command -v except that whence will find reserved words and won't print aliases as alias commands; with the -v option, whence is the same детальнее на этой странице command -V.
Note that for whence, the -p option does not affect the search path used, as it does for command.
If the type of one or more of the names could not be determined, the exit status is non-zero.
Job Control Job control refers to the shell's ability to monitor and control jobs, which are processes or groups of processes created for commands or pipelines.
At a minimum, the shell keeps track of the status of the background i.
Note that only commands that create processes e.
When a job is created, it is assigned a job-number.
Other percent sequences can also be used to refer to jobs: When a job changes state e.
The core dumped message indicates the process created a core file.
If there are multiple processes in the job, then each process will have a line showing its command and possibly its status, if it is different from the status of the previous process.
When an attempt is made to exit the shell while there are jobs in the stopped state, the shell warns the user that there are stopped jobs and does not exit.
If another attempt is immediately made to exit the shell, the stopped jobs are sent a HUP signal and the shell exits.If another attempt is immediately made to exit the shell, the running jobs are sent a HUP signal and the shell exits.
Interactive Input Line Editing The shell supports three modes of reading command lines from a tty in an interactive session.
Which is used is controlled by the emacs, gmacs and vi set options at most one of these can be set at once.
If none of these options is enabled, the shell simply lines using the normal tty driver.
If the emacs or gmacs option is set, the shell allows emacs like editing of the command; similarly, if the vi option is set, the shell allows vi like editing of the command.
These modes are described in detail in the following sections.
The line is scrolled horizontally as necessary.
Emacs Editing Mode When the emacs option set, interactive input line editing is enabled.
Warning: This mode is slightly different from the emacs mode in the original Korn shell and the 8th bit is stripped in emacs mode.
In this mode various editing commands typically bound to one or more control characters cause immediate actions without waiting for a new-line.
Several editing commands are bound to particular control characters when the shell is invoked; these bindings can be changed using the following commands: bind The current bindings are listed.
Future input of the string will cause the editing command to be immediately invoked.
The following binds the arrow keys on an ANSI terminal, or xterm these are in the default bindings.
The following is a list of editing commands available.
Each description starts with the name of the command, a n, if the command can be prefixed with a count, and any keys узнать больше здесь command is to by default written using caret notation, e.
Note that editing command names are used only with the bind command.
Furthermore, many editing commands are useful only on terminals with a visible cursor.
The default bindings were chosen to resemble corresponding EMACS key bindings.
The users tty characters e.
Most ordinary characters are bound to this.
If the current line does not begin with a comment character, one is added at the beginning of the line and the line is entered as if return had been pressedotherwise the existing comment characters are removed and the cursor is placed at the beginning of the line.
If there is no command or file name with the current partial word as its prefix, a bell character is output usually causing a audio beep.
Each input line originally starts just after the last entry in the history buffer, so down-history is not useful until either search-history or up-history has been performed.
If no files match the pattern, the bell is rung.
Prints a sorted, columnated list of command names or file names if any that can complete the partial word containing the cursor.
Prints a sorted, columnated list of command names if any that can complete the partial word containing the cursor.
File type indicators are appended as described under list above.
The current cursor position may be anywhere on the line.
This is only useful after an up-history or search-history.
The internal history list is searched backwards for commands matching the input.
The abort key will leave search mode.
Other commands will be executed after leaving search mode.
Successive search-history commands continue searching backward to the next previous occurrence of the pattern.
The history buffer retains only a finite number of lines; the oldest are discarded as necessary.
The current edit buffer is restored as soon as any key is pressed the key is then processed, unless it is a space.
Like vi, there are two modes: insert mode and command mode.
In insert mode, most characters are simply put in the buffer at the current cursor position as they are typed, however, some characters are treated specially.
In addition to the above, the following characters are also treated specially вот ссылка insert mode: In command mode, each character is interpreted as a command.
Characters that don't correspond to commands, are illegal combinations of commands or are commands that can't be carried out all посетить страницу beeps.
In the following command descriptions, a n indicates the command may be prefixed by a number e.
The term 'current position' refers to the position between the cursor and the character preceding the cursor.
A 'word' is a sequence of letters, digits and underscore characters or a sequence of non-letter, non-digit, non-underscore, non-white-space characters e.
Command expansion will match the big-word against all aliases, functions and built-in commands as well as any executable files found by searching the directories in the PATH parameter.
File name expansion matches the big-word against the files in the current directory.
After expansion, the cursor is placed just past the last word and the editor is in insert mode.
Edit Картридер CR-018B black n a append text n times: goes into insert mode just after the current position.
The append is only replicated if command mode is re-entered i.
The insertion is only replicated if command mode is re-entered i.
S substitute whole line: all characters from the first non-blank character to the end of line are deleted and insert mode is entered.
C change from the current position to the end of the line i.
D delete to the end of the line.
The replacement is repeated n times.
Y yank from the current position to the end of the line.
U undo all changes that have been made to the current line.
The following, if relevant if you are not sure, include themcan also helpful: options you are using both options.
New versions of pdksh can be obtained from.
Version This page documents version PD KSH v5.
Authors This shell is based on the public domain 7th edition Bourne shell clone by Charles Forsyth https://xn--c1akdctmh4h.xn--p1ai/black/rama-merida-one-sixty-4000-frm.html parts of the BRL shell by Doug A.
Gwyn, Doug Kingston, Ron Natalie, Arnold Robbins, Lou Salkind and others.
The first release of pdksh was created by Eric Gisin, and it was subsequently maintained by John R.
The current maintainer is Michael Rendell.
The CONTRIBUTORS file in the source distribution contains a more complete list of people and their part in the shell's development.
See Also 111111111222222233335 The KornShell Command and Programming Language, Morris Bolsky and David Korn, 1989, ISBN 0-13-516972-0.
UNIX Shell Programming, Stephen G.
IEEE Standard for information Technology - Portable Operating System Interface POSIX - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Inc, 1993, ISBN 1-55937-255-9.

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